Greenhouses: differences from greenhouses, purpose, types and care

If you want to diversify your personal diet, and, moreover, please your family with real natural vitamins before the next seasonal harvest appears, and with the right approach, even deliver fresh berries and vegetables to the table throughout the year, it is optimal to purchase a greenhouse or greenhouse from us, and if you have With certain skills and free time, you can build a greenhouse or greenhouse yourself. How to make a greenhouse or greenhouse yourself?

Of course, before you get down to business, you should think through the various parameters and nuances of the potential process, and thoroughly understand the question of how to create a greenhouse with your own hands:

  • you need to decide how much area of ​​the site can be free;
  • solve the issue of the functionality of the design, that is, will the greenhouse be relevant throughout the year or will it be used only in the spring. The year-round option requires a lot of effort and materials, because you will have to additionally provide heating, lighting, water and equip high-quality ventilation;
  • then the type of structure and the materials from which it will be built are determined.

In order not to make a mistake in this case, it is better to consider the variations of greenhouses and greenhouses.

Design features of greenhouses and greenhouses

The frame of a greenhouse or greenhouse is usually made of boards, and the useful volume is formed thanks to a lid in the form of glazed frames; they can be opened if necessary. This solution is optimal for growing seedlings and herbs, so that all this appears on the table as early as possible.

A temporary type of greenhouse, installed only for the period from spring to summer, is considered to be a combination of a wooden frame, plastic film, and fiberglass reinforcement. This solution will last for quite a long time if you disassemble the structure into parts in winter and store everything indoors. As a result, you will simply replace the film with a new canvas; it is not difficult and not expensive.

Some craftsmen install a greenhouse in a large old barrel; it is also used in the spring, but it is not necessary to remove it from the site in winter, because the structure can serve as a flower bed, or even an open bed.

The next solution requires forced heating, and is used immediately after the snow has melted. The structure is made of boards, metal-plastic reinforcement, covered with plastic film, and in order to look after the plants, you can go right inside.

A permanent greenhouse is equipped with various necessary parts and a certain microclimate is created inside it, which guarantees the operation of the building throughout the year. To do this, it is enough to make a not particularly deep foundation, then a brick base, and thoroughly insulate everything.

Such a greenhouse can even be attached to one of the walls of the living space, then it will be easier to connect the system to communications. It is convenient to care for plants throughout the year if you have access to the greenhouse from your home.

In order to save on heating in the winter season, you can install a kind of greenhouse-thermos; a pit is dug for it, the depth of which is 1.7-2 m, then everything is covered with a transparent roof. The solution is interesting, but the main thing is to take care of the ventilation system. Of course, this option is labor-intensive in its own way, but the resulting design guarantees savings in energy costs.

What is a greenhouse

A greenhouse is a small agricultural structure, also used to create an optimal microclimate for plants, protecting them from frost and other negative influences. It works on the basis of an effect called “greenhouse” - sunlight, penetrating through the transparent casing, heats the air and soil inside. The walls of the structure retain heat inside, and due to this, as well as due to the limited internal volume, the temperature in the greenhouse is significantly higher than outside. Thanks to this effect, with the help of a greenhouse it is possible to grow plants and seedlings earlier than is possible in open ground.

Butterfly greenhouse. The walls of the structure can rise up - this makes ventilation and access to the plants inside easier

An illustration explaining the principle of operation of greenhouses and greenhouses. For the latter, this effect is complemented by various heating systems

Important! Additionally, compost beds are used to heat the greenhouse. There are no other heating systems for it.

The small dimensions and weight of the greenhouse allow it to be moved around a summer cottage or garden plot without any problems. Also, due to this, any gardener can erect such structures without much time, effort and money. Metal profiles and fittings, wood and flexible polyvinyl chloride pipes are used as the frame of greenhouses. This structure is covered with plastic film or cellular polycarbonate, and in some cases even with glass.

Two types of garden greenhouses

Due to their small size, greenhouses are used either for early cultivation of seedlings in open ground, or for small-sized agricultural crops - onions, garlic, lettuce and strawberries.

What should the roof shape be?

Before you make a greenhouse or greenhouse with your own hands, you need to determine its shape; do not forget in any case that you will also need to install a roof, and this is an effective detail in growing plants. The most popular solutions:

  • gable roof, greenhouses of this type are in demand, because they are really spacious and comfortable to be in, moreover, both for plants and gardeners. With proper design, installation and choice of material, the room will be illuminated by sunlight throughout the day. Greenhouses of this type are equipped as winter gardens, planting them not so much with vegetables, but with exotic plants. Of course, this option will be realized only when the proper conditions are organized, there are reliable heating systems, lighting and irrigation;
  • arched roof, this solution for an arched greenhouse is extremely easy to install when compared with its gable counterpart. The bottom line is that a form covered with polycarbonate, or, alternatively, with plastic film, ideally diffuses sunlight throughout the room, so the plants will receive maximum natural heat. Another important point in this case is that due to the arched shape, no precipitation in the form of snow remains on the roof, that is, it will not be deformed or damaged due to the increased load in the winter season;

  • a pitched roof is ideal for greenhouses, which have one wall adjacent to a massive building, for example, a house, or even a large stone fence, always on the south side. You can really save money on the construction of this greenhouse, because one of its sides will be a finished wall, with the base itself attached to it. In addition to all that has been said, it will be extremely easy to carry out communications into the greenhouse. When designing a greenhouse with a pitched roof, you should choose the slope of the slope correctly, this is the only way snow will not lie on the surface of the roof, because the increased load will only damage the coating.

Location of the greenhouse, how and where to place the greenhouse

Since the basis of the greenhouse's heat supply is the sun's rays, knowing where to choose the right place for it is no less important than knowing how to install a greenhouse with your own hands.


  • should not be shaded throughout the day by trees or buildings;
  • located along the east-west line;
  • If possible, it should be protected from winds.

Simple greenhouse

Basic material for greenhouse covering

When making a greenhouse at home, you need to understand that certain greenhouse designs require different materials, but usually they are united by one feature - the material for covering the walls, as well as the roof, must be transparent, transmitting a sufficient amount of light.

The table below contains information about the current physical, as well as technological, and, moreover, performance indicators of the three most popular materials. Namely polycarbonate, polyethylene film, and also classic silicate glass.

Technical and operational parametersCellular polycarbonateGlassFilm
Difficulty of installation and weightLight weight, self-supporting material. It makes it possible to reduce the number of frame parts and even completely abandon the foundation Glass is a heavy material, therefore, if it is chosen for coating, the building must have a strong frame and a reliable foundation (foundation)A very light material that needs to be securely fastened to the frame.
DurabilityThe practice-proven operational period of the coating is about 20-25 years, the manufacturer provides a guarantee for 10 years of its service. Polycarbonate, due to its rigidity, is itself an element of the load-bearing structure. Once secured, it does not cause deformation or distortion. The material is durable if protected from the mechanical effects of heavy loads (snow and hail).The service life of the film is very short, at best - 2-3 years, since it is destroyed under the influence of ultraviolet rays.
Noise insulationThe material, thanks to its cellular structure, dampens wind noise well.If the installation is poor, the wind can penetrate into the greenhouse, and the glass can make ringing or rattling noises.It creates almost no sound insulation, and in strong winds it rustles in the wind.
AppearanceThe aesthetic and modern appearance of the material makes the greenhouse even, to a certain extent, a decorative element of a suburban areaThe glass has a fairly neat appearance if installed according to all the rules.The material looks neat only in the first year after it is fixed, then the film becomes cloudy and collapses, especially if it is left on the frame for the winter.
SafetyPolycarbonate is safe and does not break when dropped. It is 200 times stronger and at the same time 15 times lighter than fragile and quite heavy glass. Glass shards are very dangerous if they fall into the soil, as they can cause serious injury. Therefore, for safety reasons, glass installation must be carried out in strict compliance with all safety rules. From the point of view of causing injuries, it is completely safe.
CareDust is practically invisible on the surface of the material, and if it is heavily soiled, it is enough to wash it with water from a hose.Raindrops can linger on the surface of the glass, and then, when dry, they leave cloudy marks. To wash off these stains from the surface, you will have to make a lot of effort. It is not recommended to wash the film, as cloudy stains will remain on it, which will prevent the penetration of light.
Created microclimatePolycarbonate perfectly insulates the room. Droplets formed as a result of condensation of rising evaporation flow down the walls of the greenhouse and do not fall on the plants or on the gardener’s head. The material transmits and diffuses sunlight very well. The heat generated by plants and soil does not escape through the greenhouse covers, and therefore the necessary greenhouse effect is formed. Glass does not provide the same high thermal insulation as polycarbonate, so the greenhouse effect is significantly reduced. The material transmits light well, but does not scatter it, and low-quality glass often begins to act like a lens, which is undesirable for plant leaves. The new dense film creates good thermal insulation, but after working for one season, it becomes thinner and cloudy, so it loses its ability to completely retain heat and transmit light.

Taking into account the indicated parameters, it is possible to determine the best material for a particular greenhouse or greenhouse, which will be more consistent with their design.

Why use greenhouses

It is very important to know about the features of greenhouses in order to choose or order the right design for yourself.

A greenhouse, together with the soil inside it and the plants planted in this soil, is a rather interesting and unique biosystem that has some properties that help accelerate the development of these plants.

It is better to grow crops in a greenhouse than in open ground Source

Let's figure out what's happening inside the greenhouse.

Processes occurring in a greenhouse in the light

Vegetative parts of plants, such as leaves, stems, roots, more actively absorb water from the soil with mineral salts dissolved in it, as well as carbon dioxide and oxygen.

In turn, significantly more metabolic oxygen is released into the air than when growing in open ground.

As a result of photosynthesis, due to more saturated air, a large amount of organic substances is released, which are simply necessary for normal growth and good ripening of fruits.

Inside the greenhouse, plants lead a rather “active” life Source

Increased release of organic compounds contributes to the deposition of plastic substances that enter tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, stems, flowers, but most importantly - into fruits. Thanks to this, greenhouse vegetables are always larger.

It can be noted that a proper and convenient greenhouse provides plants with better growing conditions than open ground.

What happens in a greenhouse at night?

Plants under a greenhouse actively absorb oxygen for respiration and convert it into carbon dioxide during respiration. In the light, this excess carbon dioxide will be used for the active formation of photosynthesis products.

Water is released through the leaves in the form of water vapor. Due to the fact that the room is closed, all moisture remains inside the greenhouse and falls in the form of dew on the leaves and soil.

All moisture released by plants remains inside the greenhouse Source

Plastic substances deposited during the day reach the roots, contributing to their accelerated growth and development. For this reason, the green mass grows mainly at night.

To summarize, we can say that during daylight hours, excess oxygen is formed in the greenhouse, which is consumed by the crops at night. Thanks to this, diseases and rot do not appear in greenhouses. Therefore, it is worth thinking about such an acquisition as a greenhouse.

What is the greenhouse effect

The covering of any greenhouse is designed so that it transmits visible solar rays well, but at the same time reflects or scatters infrared rays. Therefore, the greenhouse effect in greenhouses and the atmosphere has its own differences.

In greenhouses, light is distributed evenly Source

Let's consider the features of the greenhouse effect under polycarbonate at different times of the day:

During the day, plants use some of the visible light for photosynthesis. Another portion is absorbed by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, thereby converting them to a higher energy state. Another part of the light goes into the soil and serves to warm the air and the structure itself. Moreover, IR rays emanate from the soil, which do not interact in any way with greenhouse gases. Often the temperature of the soil inside the greenhouse is slightly lower than outside it, because outside it is directly heated by the sun.

Sunlight is the main source of heat for plants in a greenhouse Source

At night, the soil temperature in the greenhouse rises sharply, so the ground becomes warmer than outside. This stimulates root growth and sap flow in the stems very well. The soil exchanges heat with the air using infrared rays, as well as through convection. Greenhouse gas molecules also give off heat, warming up the entire space indoors.

However, heat exchange also occurs through the coating. Thus, we can conclude that the greenhouse design in the form of an arch will be the most advantageous, because IR rays will be better reflected from the vaulted walls and the heat will remain inside the greenhouse.

See also: Catalog of popular plots in the Moscow region for the construction of a country house

What should the soil be like in a greenhouse?

Fertile soil is a complex biosystem, which is not only a mixture of various substances, but also a variety of living organisms that can only live in soil. Among biologists and soil scientists, fertile soil is even considered a “superorganism.” This means that the soil cover is the largest living thing in the world. It is important for us to understand that soil plays a fundamental role in growing crops in a greenhouse, so the design must allow for the possibility of all types of millioration.

The future harvest largely depends on proper soil care Source

An important feature of greenhouses is that the soil in them works all year round, because tomatoes and cucumbers are grown under the film even in winter. That is why it needs enhanced care, high-quality heating and cooling. Otherwise, it will deplete very quickly.

Because of this, greenhouses are most often not used in the same place for several seasons. Based on the nature of their use, they are divided into the following groups:

  • Ground greenhouses are the simplest, consisting only of film. They are suitable in cases where there is no need for a strong greenhouse effect. Seedlings are grown in them.
  • Mobile greenhouses are characterized by the fact that they are moved from one place to another.
  • Bulk greenhouses are used for a long time in one place, because natural soil is not used, and an enriched mixture is poured into the formwork of the structure, which is changed from time to time with a new one.

After using the first two types, the soil needs to be fertilized and loosened. You can also sow it for one season with nitrogen-fixing crops, such as legumes. After a year, it is recommended to plant cabbage, flowers or herbs in this place.

The soil in a stationary greenhouse needs constant care Source

See also: Catalog of designs for gazebos and other small forms for country houses

In agriculture, after a greenhouse, the land is usually allowed to rest for a year “under fallow”. And the next season it is sown with nitrogen-fixing plants. Therefore, when using a mobile greenhouse, it is recommended to have 4 plots of land: one under the greenhouse, one free, one under nitrogen fixers, and one under other crops.

Thus, building a greenhouse is not everything. The main thing is to allocate the right place for it, taking into account the free space and the properties of the soil on your site.

Here is an example of the correct placement of an accordion greenhouse Source

But the most effective way to keep the soil suitable for plants for several seasons is to properly warm it up.

Careful preparation for the construction of a greenhouse, its placement on the site

In order for the planting in the greenhouse to receive the light it needs for development, and to receive it throughout the day, the structure should be correctly distributed and oriented on the site. The final harvest largely depends on how long the beds are illuminated with natural light. For this reason, it is customary to install greenhouses in open space, alternatively with a transparent plane to the south.

Having decided on the type of greenhouse or greenhouse, and having found the optimal place for it on the site, plus, having distributed personal forces and capabilities, you can proceed to drawing up a sketch, and also a small drawing.

What is a greenhouse used for?

Greenhouses are used very often on private plots. The greenhouse can be used for the following purposes :

  • growing seedlings of vegetable crops: tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage and others;
  • growing ornamental plants and flowers;
  • growing potted plants;
  • rooting cuttings before planting them in the ground;
  • protection of seedlings from frost on the soil;
  • growing early vegetable crops: lettuce, radishes, green onions.

Typically, greenhouses are used in early spring or autumn, when it is necessary to protect plants from sudden temperature changes that can be detrimental to them. In the closed space of the greenhouse, optimal conditions for plants are created. Greenhouses covered with film perfectly protect seedlings from morning frosts down to -3 °C.

Designing a greenhouse or greenhouse

In order not to miscalculate in size, then in assembly, they draw up a project for a greenhouse or greenhouse, tying it to the installation site.

It is not at all necessary to draw every detail using a ruler, given the strict rules of drawing art. If you are the owner and want to do everything on your own, the project is intended for you and your assistants; you can simply draw a greenhouse by hand in a projection in which you can see all sides of the building, then indicate the dimensions of the main parts on them. Marking is usually done using rope and pegs; they are simply driven in around the perimeter of the potential pit.

Advantages of a greenhouse

  • Installation of mini-greenhouses has become popular due to the following advantages:
  • compactness, convenient placement on a windowsill or area of ​​any size (depending on the purpose);
  • protecting plants from external factors and creating favorable conditions for growth;
  • easy installation and installation;
  • easy access to planted plants;
  • an outdoor greenhouse can be used for hardening off seedlings.

What do you need to know about the pit and foundation?

If you have chosen a thermos greenhouse that will function throughout the year, then before digging a pit, it is best to carefully remove the top fertile layer of soil from the area. This soil is transferred to an individual pile, then it will be placed in the beds of the greenhouse. When deepening a pit, you suddenly come across layers of clay located under the fertile base; it is also better to put it aside, separately from the mixed soil.

Clay will pay off when adobe bricks are produced; they will be used to insulate the greenhouse. The depth of the pit should reach at least 1.7 m, but most often it is deepened to 2 m. It is at this distance that the natural geothermal heat that comes from the ground is preserved, thus the soil never freezes. Naturally, if a greenhouse is not equipped in the northern regions of the country, there is always permafrost there, even at shallow depths.

As for the width of the pit, the optimal figure is 2-5 m, and the length is determined based on desire. You cannot make the greenhouse wider, because it will quickly cool down, and heating and lighting will require a huge amount of electrical and other energy. Apart from the pit itself, a smooth descent is made, where as a result the entrance door to the greenhouse will be installed. If the place is marked for an all-season version of the greenhouse, it is optimal to dig a trench there for a strip foundation, up to 0.3 m wide and deep.

This is really enough, since the structure is not heavy, so there is minimal load on the foundation. In height, directly above the ground, it is optimal to raise the foundation by 0.2-0.5 m, although sometimes only 0.1 m is poured, the rest of the wall is built from brick if necessary. Then sand is poured into the trench and compacted in a layer of 0.5-0.7 m, then crushed stone in an identical layer. Afterwards, formwork is installed along the trench, with a slight recess into it, and as a result it is filled with concrete mortar. You should make sure that the concrete lies tightly and there is no air in it; to avoid problems, it is optimal to carry out bayoneting by piercing the poured mortar with a bayonet shovel.

Sometimes it happens that support posts made of metal pipes are built into the foundation; other parts of the greenhouse or greenhouse will eventually be attached to them. It is possible that the basis for the greenhouse can be a wooden frame made of timber; it is treated with an antiseptic and installed on a sand cushion.

Having started growing vegetables in a country house or country plot, novice vegetable growers quickly become convinced of the need to build greenhouses or greenhouses. These two structures are quite similar, however, there is a difference between them. Although the task that is solved with their help is the same: bringing plant productivity to an optimal level, subject to cultivation in unfavorable climatic conditions.


  1. Greenhouses and greenhouses, what is the difference, which came first
  2. Types of greenhouses, how they are used
  3. Design features of greenhouses video
  4. How to build a greenhouse video
  5. What to plant in a greenhouse in spring
  6. Organization of irrigation in greenhouses
  7. Greenhouse in autumn and winter - how to use the video

Greenhouses and greenhouses, what is the difference, which came first

Initially, greenhouses began to be used by vegetable growers to protect plants; they are simpler structures; the small cubic capacity of air in such structures makes it possible to provide heating in a natural way: during the day they are sufficiently heated by the rays of the sun, at night the source of heat is the burning of manure, usually they fill a hole dug under greenhouse

The traditional greenhouse was less than half a meter high; glazed frames were used to cover the top.

The prototype of a greenhouse can be considered the once popular greenhouses used for growing exotic southern plants. Mentions of heated greenhouses date back to the 16th century. Over time, greenhouses were replaced by greenhouses, which were built from durable metal frames and glass. These were expensive, very bulky and heavy buildings.

The truly rapid development of greenhouse farming began with the advent of polyethylene films. They, with their insignificant weight, made it possible to significantly lighten the frame and simplify the installation process, without losing strength and heat-saving characteristics. Today, even lighter and more durable modern materials, such as polycarbonate and spanboard, are used in the construction of greenhouses.

Let's clarify what can be called a greenhouse:

  • the height of the structure should not exceed 1.3 m
  • type of heating - natural, due to the sun and energy obtained from decomposing humus or manure
  • no door, access to plants is provided by a removable top or side frame

Types of greenhouses, how they are used

Structurally, greenhouses can differ from each other; moreover, they can be either stationary or portable, but the purpose for which a greenhouse is usually used is seedlings, i.e. it sows seeds and grows plants until they can be planted in open ground.

A portable greenhouse can be used as a temporary shelter for newly planted seedlings or, in the event of severe cold weather, to protect heat-loving plants.

A portable greenhouse will be able to protect plants from mild frosts.

The operation of greenhouses requires constant monitoring of temperature and humidity, i.e. in any case, the organization of high-quality ventilation and ventilation will be required. It is not recommended to increase the temperature and humidity above normal levels; there is a likely risk of active proliferation of pathogenic microbes.

How to build a greenhouse

To build a greenhouse on a site, a significant amount of materials will be required; the installation process itself will take a lot of time. For those summer residents who plan to grow vegetables not for sale, but only to provide for their family, the best option would be to build a greenhouse; in it it will be possible to grow greens and seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants.

You can build a greenhouse in the spring in a few hours, but you should choose a place for it and carry out preparatory work in the fall.

The location should be chosen on a hill, so that melt water cannot flood it. A small pit is dug under the greenhouse, no more than 0.7 m deep. The width is calculated taking into account the parameters of the material that will be used to construct the frames; the most convenient option is when the width of the greenhouse is equal to the size of the film covered or glazed frame.

When digging a pit, you will need to fill it to half the depth with manure, compost, plant debris, and straw. Next, a layer of soil is filled in; humus and mineral fertilizers should be added to it according to the norms.

Design features of greenhouses

When designing a greenhouse, it is recommended to choose a frame design that is easy to remove or lift. If the frames are raised, then wooden blocks will need to be prepared to fix them.

If the frames will be removed, it is recommended to build a stand next to the greenhouses to store the removed frames. These can be several pairs of wooden stakes driven into the ground in parallel rows. The height of the stakes is determined by the width of the frame; they should be slightly higher. To connect the stakes, bars are used; they are attached to the upper and lower parts of the structure. Building a stand is not difficult, but it will prevent the frames from falling and being damaged.

The design of greenhouses can differ significantly from each other.

The simplest, ground, is an area covered with film. Of course, the costs of its construction will be minimal; it is suitable for growing greens, lettuce, onions and radishes, seedlings, i.e. low-growing crops. Due to some inconveniences in care, the recommended width of this design is a maximum of 30 cm.

Among the advantages of the design are low cost, among the disadvantages: inefficient use of lighting, space and difficulty of maintenance.

To some extent, agrofilm used as a covering material will help eliminate the shortcomings.

A greenhouse with a more advanced design is a warm pit. You can grow various low-growing crops in this. The cover of such a greenhouse can be a film or frame with glass or polycarbonate. Disadvantages include a high level of heat loss.

In the old days, as a rule, they built a complex of three or four frames, charging them alternately with “fuel”, they were able to grow different types of greens throughout the year, while one of the pits was warming up, and active harvesting was going on in the others. A prerequisite for the successful operation of such a complex is the construction of a clay castle with a drainage ditch. Its absence leads to acidification of the biofuel used.

Optimal from the point of view of simplicity of design, ease of operation and energy saving is a film greenhouse on a prefabricated frame, for example, “Snowdrop”. The large volume of air inside the structure provides a high level of greenhouse effect, which allows the structure to be installed immediately after the snow cover melts.

The design does not limit the dimensions of the crops grown, i.e. If desired, you can even grow cucumbers in it. If necessary, the greenhouse can be easily transported and quickly installed in a new location. Finding a diagram for creating a greenhouse of this type on your own is not difficult, but first it is recommended to calculate the cost of purchasing the materials and fasteners that will be required when assembling it yourself; perhaps the finished structure will be cheaper.

It should not be forgotten that the full effectiveness of the greenhouse will only manifest itself if it is covered with agricultural film.

A cassette greenhouse box can be used exclusively for growing seedlings; it can be ground or bulk. The optimal service life of the soil in it is from 1 to 3 months, during which time the soil is completely depleted. Such a greenhouse is constructed from a covering material, agrofibre, which allows optimizing the use of light.

When creating ideal conditions, such a greenhouse cassette allows you to grow the number of seedlings required for planting on 12 acres of open ground.

A butterfly greenhouse, or house, is usually used as a removable structure, in most cases for growing eggplants, tomatoes, and peppers. The main disadvantage is that the film is not stretched on the frame and when performing constant ventilation procedures it quickly becomes unusable.

For the construction of bulk greenhouses, strong frames are used, most often wooden ones; either polyethylene film or agrofibre is used as a covering.

What to plant in a greenhouse in spring

Usually this question does not arise, because the traditional purpose of a greenhouse in a country house is to grow herbs and seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and flowers.

Preparing a greenhouse for spring involves the following steps:

  • with the onset of March, but if the winter is warm, then it is possible in the third ten days of February, you will need to prepare a frame, glazed, covered with covering material or film
  • the frame is installed on the frame, the tightness of its fit is checked, the slope of the frame should be towards the south, so the soil will warm up much faster
  • When the weather allows planting or sowing seeds, the greenhouse is ventilated and the soil in it is generously filled with well-heated water.
  • To prevent the development of pathogenic microorganisms and fungi, it is recommended to treat the soil with fungicides in strict accordance with the instructions for their use

To prevent burning of delicate leaves, experts recommend covering the greenhouse with a covering material and a glass frame on top of it. This will protect the plants from excessive heat and burning from sunlight.

As an advantage of a greenhouse, it should be noted that it is possible to obtain excellent, strong seedlings, with a high-quality root system, without the unnecessary hassle associated with the use of peat cups. There is also no need to clutter the window sills in the house with boxes of seedlings.

Unheated greenhouses are also used for hardening off seedlings grown indoors. Before planting in open ground, this is very important; it is much easier for a hardened plant to adapt to temperature changes.

The boxes with seedlings are taken out to the greenhouse after preparing the beds for planting these crops. The first days the frames are removed only for a day, then they are left slightly open at night, after a week the frames are removed completely. The process of hardening seedlings will require about 10-12 days. Next, the seedlings can be planted in open ground.

Organization of irrigation in greenhouses

An obligatory part of caring for a greenhouse in the spring will be watering the seedlings. This will require either removing the frames or opening them. Taking into account the need for daily care, there is no doubt that a polycarbonate greenhouse with an opening frame will be an ideal option.

Water the seedlings using a watering can; in extreme cases, you can use a hose equipped with a sprayer; when watering, do not allow the soil around the roots to erode. If possible, it is recommended to build a drip irrigation system, because it allows you to organize a regular supply of moisture to the roots.

During the spring operation of greenhouses, it is necessary to ensure the cleanliness of the material with which the frames are covered. Severe contamination will lead to seedlings experiencing a lack of light.

If the greenhouse is not used in the summer, the frames should be completely removed. In this case, rainwater will be able to wash the soil from accumulated excess mineral salts.

Greenhouse in autumn and winter - how to use it

Amateur gardeners often use greenhouses to store plants. These may be crops that are undesirable to be exposed to low temperatures. For example, chrysanthemums are often stored in this way, the bushes are transplanted into boxes, the stems are cut to a height of 15 cm, and placed in an unheated greenhouse.

In the same conditions, bulbs and tubers of garden plants that do not tolerate frost well and need protection will be well stored. They are stored in boxes covered with dry peat. To ensure good preservation, plant bulbs are placed at some distance from each other, this will allow air to circulate.

If we talk about what to plant in a greenhouse in the fall, then we should remember about forcing bulbous plants. They are planted in beds for growing seedlings to provide protection from the cold - they are covered with a thick layer of peat, about 10 cm. In this case, it will be necessary to provide ventilation for the greenhouse, i.e. It is not recommended to cover the frames tightly.

In the absence of ventilation, at positive temperatures, gray rot can develop under the frames; naturally, its appearance should not be allowed.

During wintering, the bulbs form a dense root system, and with the onset of spring warmth, they will very quickly produce green feathers of good quality.

If storing and forcing bulbs in greenhouses for planting in open ground, for example, flower crops, is organized, then the bulbs are placed in pots with a nutrient mixture, installed in the greenhouse and covered with a thick layer of peat. With the cessation of spring frosts, the rooted bulbs can be planted in open ground.

If greenhouses are not used in winter, it is recommended to remove the frames and cover the soil with a thick layer of snow.

And another interesting and useful video about the construction of greenhouses on the site:

Author: Sergey and Svetlana Khudentsov


Greenhouse or greenhouse on a wooden frame

A greenhouse that does not require a concrete foundation, where the base is a strong wooden frame, is installed without any particular difficulties:

A base box made of timber, with a cross-section of 20x15 cm, is laid on a smooth, prepared platform, covered with sand. The base should be in close contact with the surface of the earth over the entire area. For this reason, if, when laying the frame, a gap appears between it and the surface, it is better to seal it with a stone lining. It is imperative to level the frame, otherwise the greenhouse will be uneven and its operation will be unstable.

After you level the box, you need to drive 0.7 m long pieces of reinforcement into the ground at its inner corners; this measure is important to fix the base in one place.

The next stage is driving in reinforcement along the long side of the box, moreover, 0.7-0.8 m should go into the ground, and 0.6-0.7 m should remain on the surface. The reinforcement should be at a distance of 0.5-0.7 m from each other, moreover, opposite similar rods installed on the other side of the box, since this is the basis for securing the pipes.

Pre-prepared metal-plastic pipes of the required length should be placed on the surface part of the reinforcement. A kind of arcade is formed, which will serve as the basis for a transparent coating.

To ensure that the pipes stay tightly in one place, it is better to strengthen them with metal loops that are screwed to the box with self-tapping screws.

If the structure is voluminous, it is better to strengthen it well at the end sides; they should stand rigidly. This frame not only guarantees rigidity, but also forms the doorway.

To do this, you need to place the bars vertically, the cross-section of which is 5x5 cm, then fasten everything in several places with horizontal crossbars. Sometimes, assuming that transverse fastenings are indispensable, pipes for arches are connected with cross adapters, and horizontal sections of pipes are installed in them.

Another option for imparting full rigidity to the structure is to fasten the arcade at the top of the vault with a single pipe.

Fastening can be done with wire or plastic clamps, construction tape or “ties”.

The frame, which is formed from pipes, must be covered with thick polyethylene film, it is laid out with an overlap of 0.2-0.25 m. In the lower part, the film is attached with construction staples and a stapler to a wooden box. Initially, the film is well stretched over the arcade, then attached to the end sides; at the doors, the material is folded into the greenhouse.

The door itself should be light, but be a rigid structure. It is usually created from a 0.5 x 0.3 m block, plus to prevent deformation, a pair of slats are attached diagonally. Then the resulting fabric is covered with plastic film. It is customary to hang the door on a previously prepared opening using hinges. Window openings are installed exactly like this part; they are located almost under the ceiling, on the opposite side of the door. This will ensure natural flowing air circulation.

The controller is the “brain” of a smart greenhouse

The greenhouse controller is its main and mandatory element. This programmable electronic device processes information from all devices and issues commands to actuators. The main component of the controller is a processor equipped with a memory chip. The controller is programmed based on the tasks set by the specialists servicing the greenhouse.

Russian manufacturers most often produce smart greenhouses with Arduino automation: for the simplest circuits they use the Arduino Uno board, and for an advanced option for controlling the microclimate of the greenhouse, they use the Arduino Mega board. A smart greenhouse based on Arduino provides the ability to remotely control equipment: you can install the software for the greenhouse on both a personal computer and modern gadgets. Dozens of applications and modules have already been developed that help manage the microclimate in a greenhouse and promptly receive all information about greenhouse equipment. Software and application developers are constantly improving software, and now applications for greenhouses can be integrated with artificial intelligence "Alice" and control greenhouse equipment using voice commands.

Features of a thermos greenhouse

Construction of foundations for walls

After the pit for the greenhouse is ready, a strip foundation is created along its perimeter. To do this, a trench must be dug, then various actions are carried out, identical to those described earlier, where we were talking about the foundation for a winter greenhouse.

When the foundation is completely ready, the walls begin to be laid; we must not forget about installing one or two ventilation pipes. They are installed in the lower part of the end side of the building, opposite the entrance door, at a height of 0.5 m from the floor.

After installing the roof, it is customary to raise the pipes to a height directly above the ground, at least 1 m.

Greenhouse automation: efficient, convenient, safe

A smart greenhouse allows you to create and maintain optimal conditions for growing various agricultural plants. The basic capabilities of a smart greenhouse allow you to:

  • Regulate the air temperature and control the maintenance of the set temperature;
  • Create the required air humidity - for some agricultural crops this parameter is critically important;
  • Maintain soil moisture within specified limits;
  • Create additional lighting at any time of the year and regulate the illumination of the greenhouse space.

Systems with advanced functionality can also irrigate plants, provide CO₂ and nutrient solutions for the soil. A smart greenhouse can operate autonomously, using, for example, the energy of the sun's rays, but in the climatic conditions of the middle zone, energy-dependent systems operating from the electrical network are most often used.

Automated systems are installed in greenhouses, greenhouses and greenhouses, using them for growing:

  • Seedlings;
  • Gribov;
  • Spicy herbs;
  • Exotic plants;
  • Vegetables and berry crops.

The operation of a smart greenhouse is based on automatically reading data about the state of the environment, transferring it to the controller, and then to special devices that perform certain functions.

Proper wall laying

The walls are usually laid from adobe, foam concrete blocks, sometimes from permanent formwork made from polystyrene foam blocks; their cavities must be filled with cement mortar. If the latter option is the most relevant, you can immediately get insulated walls, but in this case it is valuable to separate the structure from the ground with plastic film. As soon as the stone walls are erected, the gap between the soil and the masonry should be sealed with clay, while compacting it well. The diagram of the greenhouse-thermos is clear in the lower figure.

The walls need to be raised from the foundation above the ground by at least 0.5-0.6 m. If permanent formwork was not used for them, then everything should be optimally insulated to the depth of soil freezing, taking into account the regional climatic conditions where the greenhouse is being built.

Insulation can be installed on the outside of the wall, that is, between it and the ground. For this reason, the gap between them will have to be widened, then the insulation will have to be separated from the ground using a waterproof film. When the insulation is polystyrene foam, it will rise above the ground surface, in particular, from the outside of the building, while it is important to waterproof everything, then seal it with an external decorative coating. It is optimal if it turns out to be a material that does not rot when moisture comes into contact with it. For example, a plastic lining will do.

Closing the insulation can be done using another method, for example, covering the entire outside with expanded clay and covering it with roofing material on top. In this case, corrugated sheeting is justified; it is attached below the polycarbonate, or even glazing. In this case, polyethylene film for covering the roof will pay off.

Advantages and disadvantages of greenhouses

The popularity of greenhouses on personal plots is due to their many advantages . Among them is ease of use. In regions with a harsh climate, greenhouses are used from the beginning of March to the end of November; in a mild climate and the absence of winter frosts, the greenhouse can operate all year round.

Unlike a greenhouse, a greenhouse is much easier to install.
Moreover, for its construction in dacha conditions, the materials that are at hand are often used. For the same reason, greenhouses have fairly low prices. The most budget-friendly is the tunnel film structure, the construction of which requires practically no other materials other than polyethylene film.
Greenhouses with glass and polycarbonate roofs are more durable, but more expensive. Greenhouses also have their disadvantages . So, in small greenhouses, in sufficiently warm sunny weather, plants can burn. To prevent their death, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse or periodically open it completely. You also need to take into account the light transmittance of the roofing material. If enough light passes through the glass, the film or polycarbonate blocks some of it. Therefore, if the location is incorrectly chosen in a shaded greenhouse, the plants may not have enough light to grow.

Frame installation

The next stage will be the installation of a frame to cover the walls, and also the ceiling, with polycarbonate, because its installation is simple and safe.

Initially, the bars are laid and secured with anchors on the walls that are raised from the pit; their cross-sectional size is literally 10-15 cm.

The rafters, as well as the ridge beams, should have a similar cross-sectional size as the beams mounted on the walls. A sparse sheathing is attached to the rafters, literally 2-3 bars per slope. In this case, it is needed to guarantee the rigidity of the structure. Then polycarbonate sheets are attached to the sheathing. They are attached with certain self-tapping screws with a large head, in other words, a press washer, and also a rubber gasket.

Upon completion of the installation of the roof covering, the end walls of the greenhouse are finished with polycarbonate, then the finished door is installed. It’s great if it has a glazed part. In addition to all this, the upper part of the ventilation, a kind of hole, is installed almost under the roof itself, and a pipe is attached there.

How to choose a smart greenhouse?

Before purchasing a finished greenhouse, you should decide on the following design parameters:

  • Purpose of the greenhouse (what crops will be grown);
  • Degree of greenhouse automation;
  • Design dimensions;
  • Period of use of the greenhouse (only in spring/summer or throughout the year);
  • Volume of crops grown (for family needs or for sale).

The market offers a wide selection of modern garden greenhouses with automation. A glass structure on a metal frame will be more reliable, durable and practical. The advantages of such a greenhouse are due to the properties of the materials used for its manufacture. For such a greenhouse it is necessary to make a foundation and create high beds. You can also automate a compact polycarbonate greenhouse.

How to strengthen the structure?

It is important to focus on the fact that you need to leave the part of the roof that faces south open to sunlight, because the sun spends more time there during the day. Another roof slope from the inside of the greenhouse is covered with foil insulation, which will reflect the light falling on it through the transparent part of the roof. For this purpose, it is optimal to use foamed polyethylene, the thickness of which is 5 mm, with a foil part.

Fastening occurs to the roof rafters thanks to self-tapping screws with a wide head. At the junction, the insulation must be folded onto the wall. In a similar way, it is customary to insulate the walls of a greenhouse; the material is fastened on vertical stone planes with liquid nails, or even a sheathing of thin slats is installed on the wall, plus polyethylene foam is secured with self-tapping screws.

The purpose of the foil coating is not simply to reflect light into the space, but also to conserve carbon dioxide, heat and moisture, which are vital during the photosynthesis that occurs in plants.

What is a greenhouse for?

First of all, this is a huge help in growing many crops, especially heat-loving ones.

Spring night frosts can significantly harm already sufficiently grown cucumber sprouts (we'll talk about greenhouses for cucumbers here) or blooming strawberries, not to mention tomatoes and only green lettuce leaves. A greenhouse is able to protect the crop from excessive rain and gusty winds, and the hot scorching sun.

The need for such a design is obvious; the main thing that needs to be done is to select the necessary material and choose the design of the future shelter .

How to organize heating in a greenhouse?

To prevent heat from escaping outside the greenhouse or greenhouse for a long time, it is customary to install doors on the ventilation openings. The room can be heated in different ways, for example, with an electrical “warm home” system, then with convectors and a long-burning stove. And if the greenhouse is located near the house, it is possible to install water heating directly from a gas boiler into it.

If a “warm floor” system is installed, then before placing it, you need to prepare the bottom of the greenhouse, because energy can be wasted in the ground. The system should be installed under the beds, although if necessary it can be placed under the paths between them.

Preparation takes place in stages:

  • a heat-insulating sheet is applied to the ground; it’s good if it contains foil;
  • be sure to pour a layer of sand about 5 cm thick;
  • a reinforcing mesh is placed on top, the cell size of which is 3x3 cm;
  • then the heating cable is fixed;
  • it is covered with a sand cushion of 5 cm;
  • the reinforcing mesh is laid again;
  • 30-40 cm of soil is placed on it.

Each layer is laid in formed beds, with bricks or boards protruding as sides. The beds are usually arranged along the walls, but if the greenhouse or greenhouse is wide, then an additional line is installed in the middle. It is good to create the beds at a slight angle, so the soil surface will be slightly turned towards the transparent roof slope on the south side. Quite often lately convectors have been installed in greenhouses for heating.

They really have many advantages that are ideal directly for greenhouses and greenhouses:

  • They dry the air minimally, compared to other heaters, because they are designed in such a way that they create artificial circulation of warm air;
  • easy to install, just hang the convector on a bracket mounted on the wall, plug it into a power outlet, and set the temperature level on the regulator;
  • I’m pleased that there is an automatic mode for turning the heater on and off, taking into account the selected temperature, this saves energy;
  • The device is small, with an aesthetically modern look.

Before purchasing a convector for heating a large space, it is better to look at the characteristics of the device, take into account the power, then it will become clear how many heaters are needed for your area. Another heating solution is a long-burning cast iron boiler with a water circuit.

To install such a system, you will have to do a lot of work:

  • First, the boiler is installed, its installation is carried out directly in the greenhouse, or even in an adjacent room;
  • you need to build a chimney that can be raised to a height of at least 5 m;
  • for the pipe to pass through the hole equipped for it, it is better to isolate the combustible materials of the greenhouse from the high temperature during the heating of the boiler;
  • it is important to calculate the correct slope of the circuit pipes, then install supply and return pipes for the coolant, most importantly, correctly distributing the radiators;
  • the system needs to be filled with water, then a temperature sensor must be installed directly in the greenhouse.

The installation of the described system is probably really complicated in comparison with other analogues, in particular, if we draw a parallel with the converter heating system.

When heating the greenhouse, it is important to note that for normal development and growth of plants, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature at +25...+30 degrees, and the soil temperature should reach +20...+25 degrees. Moreover, it is important to maintain a normal level of humidity in the room.

DIY mini greenhouses

There are several other types of mini greenhouses. They are small in size. And you can make them from anything you can get your hands on:

  1. Greenhouse made of plastic boxes. To make it you will need a regular vegetable box. It is covered with film so that the earth does not spill into the crack. Soil is poured on top and seeds are planted. The top of such a mini greenhouse is again covered with film. It is interesting because it is transportable. You can put it on a sunny windowsill, or take it to the garden for airing. Put it away in the house at night, and by morning install it again where needed.
  2. A very miniature greenhouse, made from a plastic egg tray. Its lower part is covered with soil and a separate seed is sown in each cell. And the top part is covered.
  3. You can install a greenhouse right in the garden on the top of an old, unnecessary table. Putting pots of seedlings on the table. Above them, secure the arcs to the table top and cover them with plastic wrap. It is also easily transported from place to place as needed.
  4. You can grow early greens in an individual pot. But to make the seeds grow faster, cover the pots with larger plastic bottles. It is enough to cut off their bottom and cover the green spaces.
  5. Knock down a cube or triangle from small boards. Cover its walls with polyethylene, except for the bottom. Such structures will very well save only the planted seedlings from night frosts.

As you can see, it’s worth looking around and putting in a lot of desire, a minimum of effort and financial investment. You can absolutely grow early and environmentally friendly vegetables in your garden beds.

What will a greenhouse or greenhouse look like on a foundation?

A greenhouse mounted on a strip foundation will easily function throughout the year if the necessary conditions are there.

Accordingly, the assembly of the building is carried out extremely carefully, because it must be generally airtight, not counting, of course, the installed ventilation system. For the frame, it is optimal to prefer wood, since it conducts cold minimally, in comparison with a metal profile, it is guaranteed to create “cold bridges.”

What does a smart greenhouse circuit consist of?

The robotic complex includes a wide arsenal of instruments and devices:

  • Light sensors;
  • Hygrometers;
  • CO₂ control sensor;
  • Timers;
  • Water flow sensors;
  • External temperature sensor;
  • Heating elements, electrical cables and thermostats for heating soil and air;
  • A system of lamps that form the luminous flux, as well as a photoresistor;
  • Fans;
  • Pneumatic or hydraulic lifts for transoms;
  • Automatic curtains for creating shading.

In greenhouses used by large agricultural producers, more complex devices are installed - for example, dew point sensors. All these devices and instruments are connected to a computer, and information from the sensors is transmitted using a digital signal.

The frame for this version of the greenhouse is installed in stages:

  • waterproofing material, mainly classic roofing felt, is laid on adobe or stone plastered walls that are 0.5-0.7 m above the ground;
  • thick wooden beams are attached to it with anchors, their width depends on the walls, and their height ranges from 5 to 15 cm;
  • It is better to seal the gaps between walls and beams, or even metal profiles, with polyurethane foam;
  • further work depends on what material will be the main one in the greenhouse, it may be a ready-made metal-plastic frame, or the foundation of a metal or wooden frame;
  • then double- or triple-glazed windows are installed in metal-plastic frames, wooden frames with glass or double-glazed windows are installed in a wooden frame, polycarbonate is usually attached to a metal analogue.

The foundation, then the floor and the lower level of the greenhouse wall must be insulated. For this reason, in this case, it is better to prefer a “warm floor”, its structure is described above, and in addition you need to install high-quality converter heating. It will maintain the temperature in the room.

If the greenhouse is located in a cold region where there is a lot of snow in winter, then when clearing the yard of snowdrifts, it is better to pile the snow right next to the walls; it will serve as insulation and will make it possible to save on heating costs in the winter. For walls, it is better to prefer thick glass, about 5-7 mm, or even cellular polycarbonate, 10-15 mm. The honeycomb material has an air gap between the main planes, all of which works like insulation.

Building a greenhouse - step-by-step instructions

The first thing to do is to draw up a drawing of the future greenhouse. And, in addition to the design, it is necessary to decide how the beds will be located. Their proper planning will contribute to the rapid growth of plants and ease of work in the greenhouse.

Important! You should remember about the orientation of the structure to the cardinal points. If the greenhouse will be used for growing agricultural crops with low-growing bushes, then one of the long sides should “look” to the east, and the opposite side should “look” to the west. If tall plants are cultivated in the building or racks and shelves with seedlings are installed, the orientation changes - the length of the greenhouse should face south and north, respectively.

Step 1. Take a piece of paper, draw a rectangle on it, corresponding in length and width to that of the greenhouse (taking into account the scale, of course).

Step 2. Inside this rectangle, draw the beds, plan their size and location. The beds can be located in two rows along the walls with a passage in the middle or in three rows, but with two passages. In any case, their width should not exceed 1-1.2 m, otherwise working with plants will be very inconvenient and even risky.

An example of a drawing with beds in two and three rows in a greenhouse

Several more options for the location of the beds, including for a greenhouse with an entrance from the side of a long wall. The U-shaped shape of the beds and its variations allow you to increase the usable area inside without much damage to the ease of work and movement

Step 3: Decide whether raised beds will be used in the greenhouse. Boxes with a height of 20 to 60 cm with compost will not only make it easier to work with plants (you don’t have to bend your back too much every time), but will also warm the roots of agricultural crops and feed them with useful substances.

Raised beds in a greenhouse

Beds in a greenhouse

Step 4. To more effectively use the internal volume of the greenhouse, add racks with seedlings or low-growing crops to the bed plan.

Scheme of a film greenhouse with shelving

After planning the beds, proceed directly to construction work. Here are step-by-step instructions for constructing a greenhouse from wooden beams and cellular polycarbonate as cladding. You are free to change the design and materials used as you see fit.

Greenhouse made of wooden beams and cellular polycarbonate on a brick foundation

Step 1. Take measurements and mark the area for the greenhouse. Drive pegs or pieces of reinforcement into the corners and stretch a rope between them. Control the dimensions of length, width and diagonals using a tape measure.

Pegs are hammered into the corners

A rope is stretched between the pegs

The same actions, but on the other side of the future greenhouse

Step 2. Dig a small trench for the foundation, 20-25 cm wide and one shovel bayonet deep.

Next you need to dig a trench

Finished trench

Step 3. Fill the resulting trench with sand to the ground level. Don't forget to compact everything well.

The bottom of the trench is covered with sand

The sand is compacted

Step 4. Start laying out the foundation. In this case, it is made of bricks one block thick and two blocks high. First lay the bottom row on the sand.

Use a building level to check that the masonry is at the same height

Ready first row of foundation

Important! Instead of bricks, you can use timber laid in a trench. And for particularly heavy buildings - a shallow strip foundation with concrete reinforced with reinforcement.

Step 5. Mix the cement mortar and lay out the second row of bricks, securing it to the previous one. Don't forget about control using a level.

Cement mortar is mixed

Laying the second row of bricks

Ready foundation

Important! It is also advisable to lay waterproofing material on top of the foundation, although this is not the case in the example. Roofing felt can serve as such a material.

Step 6. Take measurements and cut the timber according to the dimensions of the horizontal beams and vertical posts.

Timber measurements

Timber cutting

Step 7. Sand the surface of the bars.

Grinding process

Step 8. Treat the wood with an antiseptic by applying it with a brush or spray. For greater durability, allow the coating to dry and reapply. It should be remembered that impregnation with an antiseptic for a wooden greenhouse must be repeated every 2-3 years.

Antiseptic treatment

Step 9. Install the frame bottom rails and corner posts. Secure them to each other using reinforced metal corners and self-tapping screws. In the same way, connect the intermediate vertical posts of the frame to the bottom trim. The interval between them is from 50 to 100 cm, depending on the cross-section of the timber.

Installing a corner post

Installing vertical intermediate posts

Step 10. Using a similar principle, attach the beams of the upper frame frame to the vertical posts with corners.

Attaching the top harness

Finished greenhouse walls. The pediment with the door frame stands out separately

Step 11. Prepare the timber for the rafters. Its ends must be filed at an angle.

The ends of the timber are filed at an angle

Step 12. Secure the rafters to the front and back walls of the greenhouse using special metal corners.

Attaching rafters to the walls of the greenhouse

Step 13. Also connect the rafters to each other using a metal plate with the appropriate angle.

Rafter connection

Step 14. Use self-tapping screws to connect the rafters of the greenhouse gable and the vertical posts of the door frame (these posts must first be sawn at an angle).

Attaching the rafters to the vertical posts of the door frame

Step 15. Attach the intermediate rafters to the walls in the same way as in step 12 - to the corners. In this case, it makes sense to connect the rafters on the ground and add an intermediate horizontal beam to strengthen the structure.

Installation of intermediate rafters

Greenhouse frame made of wooden beams with ready-made rafters

Step 16. Place the ridge beam on the rafters and secure it with self-tapping screws.

Fastening the ridge beam

Step 17. Attach additional beams between the wall posts and rafters to give the structure greater strength.

Jib to strengthen the structure

Jib attachment

Step 18. Don’t forget to install the jibs inside the walls of the greenhouse - this will make it stronger and more durable.

Installation of jibs at the end of the greenhouse

Step 19. Start assembling the door. To begin, assemble a rectangular box from timber, then complete it with a horizontal crossbar in the middle and diagonal jibs. Don't forget to screw the hinges.

Door assembly

Door assembly (continued)

Step 20. Install the door into the frame. Check to see if the hinges are secure and how well the door closes and opens.

Door installation

Step 21. Now the completely finished frame of the greenhouse made of timber must be attached to the brick foundation. To do this, mark the fastening points, drill holes in the brick, then insert and hammer plastic dowels into them. After this, connect the foundation and the beam of the lower frame using corners and screws. The fasteners must be frequent enough to ensure a secure connection.

Drilling holes in the foundation

The dowel gets clogged

Attaching the frame to the foundation

Step 22. Cut the connecting profile for the polycarbonate to the length of the rafters. Also prepare a ridge profile of the appropriate dimensions.

Cutting the connecting profile

Step 23. Install the connecting and ridge profiles on the roof of the greenhouse frame. Fasteners are made with self-tapping screws with a thermal washer so that they compensate for the high coefficient of linear expansion of the profile.

Installing profiles

Fastening the connecting profile

Step 24. Measure and cut rectangular pieces of polycarbonate with a craft knife to match the length of the rafters and the spacing between them.

Cutting polycarbonate

Step 25. Insert the resulting rectangular polycarbonate elements into the grooves of the connecting and ridge profiles and secure them there. Cover the bottom end with perforated tape - it will ensure the removal of condensate accumulated in the cells of the SPC.

Polycarbonate sheets are inserted into the grooves of the profiles

Step 26. Begin attaching the cellular polycarbonate sheets to the walls of the greenhouse. To do this, use roofing screws. Wrap them carefully, do not allow too strong dents in the fastening points.

Wall cladding with polycarbonate

Fastening cellular polycarbonate

Sheathing the end of the greenhouse with polycarbonate

Step 27. Finishing touches - trim off excess polycarbonate, install door handles and bolts.

Latch installation

Ready-made greenhouse made of wooden beams and cellular polycarbonate on a brick foundation

This structure can be improved by installing automated irrigation, heating and ventilation systems inside. The simplest option in this case is drip tapes or sprinklers controlled by a timer, a “warm floor” system using a heating boiler, and vents equipped with thermal cylinders.

An example of creating an autonomous irrigation system powered by a solar battery. The container can be simultaneously replenished with rain and tap water.

Full automation life support system. Its arrangement is quite expensive, but the benefits received will pay off all costs over time

Now you know what greenhouses and greenhouses are, what their features and differences are. In addition, the step-by-step instructions above will help you make such structures yourself, using accessible and inexpensive materials and tools.

Lighting organization

Any greenhouse that is used in winter must be additionally illuminated, thus, the room will appear in a spring state, due to the fact that the length of daylight hours, as well as the intensity of winter solar radiation, will be really small.

In order to save energy in the form of lighting fixtures, it is possible to use lamps with LEDs. They are sometimes of different shapes, but are located only at the highest point of the ceiling. Naturally, if desired, it is possible to install classic lamps; they are mounted at the junction of the roof and walls, or, alternatively, high up directly on the walls.

To adjust the lighting hourly, it is possible to install a control unit with a specific timer, set on it the time when the light in the greenhouse needs to be turned on and off. The described system will make it possible to save energy and create extremely comfortable conditions for plants.

If a greenhouse or hotbed is needed only for the spring-summer period, it is not difficult to justify it, because no special insulation conditions or lighting are required. The winter option, in turn, is extremely complex, especially in calculations and construction, and in everyday use in general. Typically, these complexes are arranged by those people who professionally grow flowers and vegetables, and some exotic plants. Thus, they simply cannot do without a comfortable room with a special microclimate. All these maintenance costs will pay off over time when the sale of plants or fruits begins.

Buy ready-made greenhouses and greenhouses in - call: 90-58-90

How to calculate the size of a greenhouse

As a rule, work in greenhouses takes place outside the structure. Therefore, its width should be such that it would be convenient for the summer resident to work in it. Therefore, the width must be measured based on individual capabilities.

This is done as follows. You need to sit down or bend over near the extreme wall of the greenhouse and how far, and most importantly comfortably, you can reach with your hand, this is the width it will be. This is the case if the structure is one-sided. The principle of measuring the width of a double-sided greenhouse is the same. Only the width is measured at both the right and left walls.

The panic should be of such a size that it is convenient to work in it

Often, one-sided greenhouses are made no wider than one and a half meters, double-sided 2-2.5 meters. And its length can be anything.

Greenhouse height

A greenhouse differs from greenhouses in that it is not heated. Its structures are much smaller in size than greenhouses. Therefore, in order to retain the maximum amount of heat, they are not made high.

The maximum height of greenhouses is no more than one and a half meters. This is even a lot; the smaller it is, the warmer the plants are. After all, they are heated by sunlight and biofuel (cow, horse or goat manure, bird droppings), which is located inside the building.

Greenhouse: pros and cons

Greenhouses have a huge number of positive qualities.
Their presence helps to grow plants, vegetables, and flowers. Thanks to the greenhouse, many housewives can already decorate their family’s daily diet with a variety of fruits from the earth at the very beginning of summer. However, like any other structure, these buildings have both positive and negative sides. To reduce the disadvantages of your own greenhouse to a minimum, it is necessary to provide its load-bearing parts with truly reliable supports. And if the greenhouse structure is often equipped with automatic watering and heating, then for greenhouses only mandatory and regular ventilation is provided. The organization of such a ventilation system is necessary for every structure, both solid and temporary. After all, the lack of fresh air flow makes the greenhouse microclimate a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic bacteria, rot and mold.

In the classic version, greenhouses are inferior in size to greenhouses. The direct use of a greenhouse is the cultivation of seedlings, which are subsequently transplanted into open ground.

The positive qualities of a greenhouse include:

  • cheapness;
  • the ability to install on your own and using improvised means;
  • the absence of the need for large plots of land to construct a structure of this type.

The negative aspects of a greenhouse come down to the following:

  • it is difficult to prune plants;
  • its ventilation is realized by partial or complete opening of the covering, which leads to drops and sharp fluctuations in air temperature;
  • due to the fact that some leaves shade others, those that receive less light begin to die.

How to ventilate a greenhouse correctly

In fact, the process of ventilating greenhouses is limited only by the required temperature and humidity inside the structure. After all, the main task is to create optimal conditions for plant growth. Therefore, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the basic rules:

  • You cannot create conditions under which drafts will occur inside the greenhouse.
  • For uniform ventilation, openings with opening frames must be installed evenly along the entire length of the building.
  • It is better to ventilate the greenhouse in the evening and in the morning, when the temperature outside is more favorable for plants.
  • Plant inside the greenhouse only those plants for which the humidity and temperature conditions of growth will be approximately the same.
  • Purchase ventilation mechanisms strictly according to the load they can withstand. The manufacturer must indicate this in the product passport. To do this, you will additionally have to determine the weight of the window.

What materials are used to make the frame?

Wood, plastic and profile pipes, metal, fiberglass are used for the frame.

  • A wooden frame is the cheapest option. Its service life is short - the tree needs constant care. In conditions of high humidity, it quickly begins to rot.
  • The metal frame is durable. Typically used for the construction of permanent structures, in polycarbonate greenhouses or in combination with PVC pipes to increase structural stability.
  • PVC plastic pipes are convenient for constructing arched greenhouses. Pipes are light in weight, bend easily, and have great strength. Such a frame can be easily assembled from pipes or you can buy a ready-made kit in which the pipes have the required length and markings to facilitate assembly. The finished frame has doors for passage and vents for ventilation.
  • A simple version of a greenhouse is a film stretched over plastic arcs dug into the ground. Such greenhouses are built in the spring; for the winter, the arcs are removed to utility rooms.

Greenhouses: types and features

By type, greenhouses are divided into:

  • groundless;
  • soil

It is based on the choice of method of growing plants that the type of greenhouse structure is selected. Soilless growing, which has been gaining popularity in recent years, is in turn divided into aeroponic and hydroponic methods. They are promising for industrial production, while most amateur gardeners still prefer the usual soil.

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In terms of their design features, greenhouses can be even more diverse than greenhouses. Roofs alone are presented in a huge range: from gable to domed or arched structures.

Depending on the location of installation, such a structure can be called free-standing or wall-mounted. Here everything depends on the area of ​​the territory being developed.

Sophisticated Advanced Greenhouses

Considering the designs of greenhouses and their types, one cannot fail to mention such outstanding developments as the American greenhouse according to Mittleider, Ivanov’s solar vegetarian or a dome-shaped greenhouse. These ideas became simply innovative in their time and served as an impetus for the development of farming and agriculture in general.

Unusual greenhouse designs

American greenhouse - the developments of J. Mittleider

The main problem with large greenhouses is lack of ventilation. Often it is provided only by the front door, which is extremely insufficient. Plants become too hot, humid and literally can’t breathe. The solution to this issue turned out to be very simple. It was found by the American gardener J. Mittleider.

Its innovation lies in the fact that the roof of the greenhouse is arranged on two levels.

And at the junction of the two halves of the roof, a free space is formed, where transoms for ventilation fit perfectly. The structure can be arched or gable with vertical walls. In both cases, ventilation is very easy to provide. The frame is traditionally made of wood.

The classic version according to Mitlider - construction

In addition to good air exchange, the advantages of Mitlider's design are as follows:

  • simplicity of design and installation;
  • reliability, thanks to cross beams and braces;
  • the ability to build a collapsible version;
  • no condensation due to wooden frame.

Geodesic sphere - dome on the site

The original spherical greenhouse looks very unusual on the site. The structure itself is already a decoration of the garden and can serve as a striking element of landscape design. The greenhouse dome is assembled like a construction set from triangular elements. It is noteworthy that the coating is self-supporting and does not require any supports or frames, including a foundation.

Advantages of the geodetic sphere:

  • light weight;
  • the shape of the room ensures good air circulation;
  • good illumination of the greenhouse from all sides;
  • the aerodynamic shape resists even the strongest winds.

The disadvantages of this model are:

  • complexity of manufacturing and installation;
  • the entire volume is not used, as in the arched version;
  • It is difficult to adapt curved walls for shelves and racks.

Geodesic sphere under polyethylene

Solar vegetarian for plants

The brilliant invention of the Soviet scientist Ivanov is a solar vegetarian. This building doubles the illumination of the greenhouse without additional lamps. In addition, the air temperature rises without heating costs.

The greenhouse can be an option for an adjacent greenhouse or built separately. But in the latter case, you will have to build a permanent wall. When building Ivanov’s vegetarian garden, it is necessary to take into account the position of the compass needle. The blank wall must be north - this is a prerequisite.

In addition, the natural slope of the terrain is taken into account. Ideally, the vegetarian garden will be located on a southern slope with a slope of 15 to 35 degrees. If there is no such slope, it will have to be created artificially. The roof of the greenhouse and its floor should be parallel to each other. To ensure the stability of the greenhouse structure, you need to build a strong foundation.

The main secret of this greenhouse is the reflective mirror coating on the north wall. The reflector will double the amount of sunlight. This innovation has a good effect on the harvest and does not require additional costs.

Freestanding vegetarian

Advantages of Ivanov's solar vegetarian diet:

  • good lighting;
  • good natural heating;
  • saving on energy costs.

Design disadvantages:

  • complexity of installation;
  • high cost of building materials;
  • stationarity.

Sliding roof – ventilation without problems

Greenhouses with a sliding roof combine all the advantages of the arched type, but, at the same time, eliminate some of their disadvantages. The design is a conventional greenhouse with a roof of two halves. The roof structure uses a special sliding roller mechanism, which allows you to open the greenhouse if necessary.

Great solution for a greenhouse

The advantages of the system are as follows:

  • summer heat is not terrible for plants, this is especially true in spring, when the temperature drops sharply at night;
  • good ventilation is ensured;
  • Easy to clean the greenhouse from snow thanks to the opening mechanism.

Types of greenhouses by materials

When choosing a greenhouse, you need to consider not only its shape. The material from which it is made plays a very important role. This affects the reliability of the greenhouse, its cost, and many other nuances. Consider the main types of building materials that are used to construct a greenhouse before making your final choice.

Wooden frame - a common option

Design features

So, what is ventilation of greenhouses, what principles does this process follow? Essentially, these are several vents installed in the greenhouse structure, which automatically open and close.

And here the question arises about the number of vents to be installed. That is, how many of them are needed so as not to change the microclimate. To do this, you will have to calculate the internal volume of the greenhouse, and based on this parameter, select the number of openings. It is not recommended to do this on your own; you can make a mistake that will negatively affect the future condition of the plants. Leave it to the experts.

Next, you need to decide where the windows will be located. There are two options here:

  • End location. To do this, doors and vents are installed on the end walls of the greenhouse. By opening them, you can quickly reduce the humidity inside the room. This is a good ventilation option, which also has a significant disadvantage - the formation of drafts. And this often leads to diseases of green spaces.
  • Lateral location. Better than the end one in terms of proper air circulation. Namely: from bottom to top. Therefore, it is recommended to place the windows as high as possible. At the same time, cold air, sinking to the ground, has time to heat up. That is, it does not have a negative effect on plants.

Basic classical types of construction

Traditional arched shape

Greenhouses differ from each other in shape, size, presence of a foundation, frame and covering materials. To choose the best option for yourself, you need to consider all existing types of greenhouses and their designs. The difference lies not only in functionality, but also in ease of installation, cost and compactness. Only after assessing all these parameters can you begin to make a choice.

Greenhouse-arch – simplicity of design and installation

The most popular and easy-to-use option is an arched greenhouse, which is a lightweight frame of several arches connected by transverse elements. This type is economical, since the semicircular shape allows you to significantly save coating material.

Small arch covered with film

The versatility of this type of greenhouse lies in the fact that it is equally good both in a mini-format for a summer cottage and in an industrial version for growing vegetables in large quantities. The design is considered one of the most reliable and durable. The main advantages of the arch greenhouse:

  • the ability to add or remove any number of sections;
  • snow does not linger on the coating;
  • You can assemble a greenhouse-arch with your own hands without complex calculations;
  • low cost of materials.

This type of greenhouse also has disadvantages, which should not be forgotten:

  • it is impossible to use glass;
  • The space inside cannot always be used rationally.

The arched design does not allow placing racks or shelves on the walls. The height of the room is not the same, which does not allow growing plants of the same height throughout the entire area.

It is best suited for low and medium-sized crops. In this case, the entire heated volume is not used. Therefore, this type of greenhouse requires high heating costs.

Large arched greenhouse

For ventilation of arched greenhouses, an entrance door is used, and in large buildings additional ventilation windows and transoms are installed. If the frame and covering are made of lightweight materials, and the greenhouse itself is not very large, during installation you can do without a stationary foundation.

Long reinforcement bars are installed at the ends of the arches, which are attached to the ground. Larger greenhouses require installation on a foundation.

Single-pitch or adjoining structure

For home use, it is advisable to build greenhouses adjacent to another building. Another popular and simple greenhouse design is a lean-to greenhouse. Such a model can be built near a house or any outbuilding. A lean-to greenhouse consists of one inclined plane adjacent to a supporting wall. Thanks to this support, the costs of the greenhouse frame are significantly reduced.

Location near a brick wall

Another advantage of a lean-to structure is thermal insulation. Brick, wood, concrete wall – it doesn’t matter. In any case, the thermal insulation properties of the wall material are better than those of polyethylene film or glass. Thus, much less heat is lost in a heated adjacent greenhouse.

The disadvantages of a single-pitch design are as follows:

  • insufficient lighting;
  • Due to design features, snow often accumulates on the roof, which can damage the coating.

The main problem is low light. During construction, it is necessary to take into account the location of the building relative to the cardinal directions. It is unacceptable to build an adjacent greenhouse on the north side of the building.

Greenhouse-house - vertical walls and gable roof

A greenhouse with vertical walls and a gable roof is popularly called a “house”. The structure consists of two rectangular side walls and two pentagonal end walls. The roof is made of two inclined planes.

Classic "house" made of polycarbonate

Advantages of this configuration:

  • significantly larger usable area compared to a gable greenhouse;
  • convenience of placing utility racks and shelves on vertical walls;
  • ease of ventilation (it is very easy to place windows and vents in vertical walls).

The main disadvantage of this design is the complexity of installation. To build such a greenhouse you will have to make a detailed calculation. The base is not very wide, therefore, in the absence of a foundation, the structure will not be stable enough.

A large number of joints implies poor sealing. Because of this, cracks can form and, as a result, drafts. To prevent such miscalculations, you need to treat the greenhouse drawing with full responsibility.

The Dutch greenhouse is a type of gable “house”. The difference is that the walls in this model are not strictly vertical, but are located at a slight slope. Such modernization significantly increases the sustainability of this greenhouse design.

Dutch industrial greenhouse

The disadvantage is the difficulty of installing shelves on sloping walls. However, if we take into account the fact that the configuration has better light transmission, this small drawback can be neglected.

An option to solve the problem of a gable greenhouse is to use flowerpots. Since the standard gable structure has a height of more than 2.5 m, hanging pots with plants at the top is very convenient.

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